North America's Indian peoples have always viewed competitive sport as something more than a pastime. The northeastern Indians' ball-and-stick game that would become lacrosse served both symbolic and practical functions—preparing young men for war, providing an arena for tribes to strengthen alliances or settle disputes, and reinforcing religious beliefs and cultural cohesion. Today a multimillion-dollar industry, lacrosse is played by colleges and high schools, amateur clubs, and two professional leagues.
In Lacrosse: A History of the Game, Donald M. Fisher traces the evolution of the sport from the pre-colonial era to the founding in 2001 of a professional outdoor league—Major League Lacrosse—told through the stories of the people behind each step in lacrosse's development: Canadian dentist George Beers, the father of the modern game; Rosabelle Sinclair, who played a large role in the 1950s reinforcing the feminine qualities of the women's game; "Father Bill" Schmeisser, the Johns Hopkins University coach who worked tirelessly to popularize lacrosse in Baltimore; Syracuse coach Laurie Cox, who was to lacrosse what Yale's Walter Camp was to football; 1960s Indian star Gaylord Powless, who endured racist taunts both on and off the field; Oren Lyons and Wes Patterson, who founded the inter-reservation Iroquois Nationals in 1983; and Gary and Paul Gait, the Canadian twins who were All-Americans at Syracuse University and have dominated the sport for the past decade.
Throughout, Fisher focuses on lacrosse as contested ground. Competing cultural interests, he explains, have clashed since English settlers in mid-nineteenth-century Canada first appropriated and transformed the "primitive" Mohawk game of tewaarathon, eventually turning it into a respectable "gentleman's" sport. Drawing on extensive primary research, he shows how amateurs and professionals, elite collegians and working-class athletes, field- and box-lacrosse players, Canadians and Americans, men and women, and Indians and whites have assigned multiple and often conflicting meanings to North America's first—and fastest growing—team sport.
Chicago/Turabian Citation Style Guide
Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Seventh
Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
- Public Documents
- Sources in Performing Arts
- Journal Articles
- Unpublished Sources
- Magazine Articles
F= Footnote or Endnote
Ex F=Example in Footnote/Endnote
Ex B=Example in Bibliography
Ex B: Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title. Publication City: Publishing Company, Year.
B: Orwell, George. 1984. New York: Signet Classic, 1950.
Ex F: Author’s First and Last Name, Title (Publication City: Publishing Company, Year), Page.
F: George Orwell, 1984 (New York: Signet Classic, 1950), 51-53.
Books with multiple authors:
Ex B: Author’s Last Name, First and next Author’s First then Last Name. Title. Publication City: Publishing Company, Year.
B: Silber, Laura, and Allan Little. Yugoslavia Death of a Nation. New York: Penguin Books, 1995.
Ex F: Author’s First and Last Name, and next Author’s First and Last Name, Title (Publication City: Publishing Company, Year), Page.
F: Laura Silber and Allan Little, Yugoslavia Death of a Nation (New York: Penguin Books, 1995), 112-114.
Books with an editor or translator in place of an author:
Ex B: Editor’s Last Name, First and next Editor’s First then Last Name, eds. or trans. Title. Publication City: Publishing Company, Year.
B: Cheng, Pei-kai, Michael Lestz, and Jonathon D. Spence, eds. The Search for Modern China. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999.
Ex F: Translator’s First and Last Name, and next Translator’s First and Last Name, eds. or trans., Title (Publication City: Publishing Company, Year), Page.
F: Pei-kai Cheng, Michael Lestz, and Jonathan D. Spence, eds., The Search for Modern China (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999), 445.
Extra Information: Use the editors or translators the same you would use authors, just add eds. for editors and trans. for translators.
Books with an editor or translator in addition to an author:
Ex B: Author’s Last Name, First. Title. Translated or Edited by Translator or Editor. Publication City: Publishing Company, Year.
B: Zhong, Luo Guan. Romance of the Three Kingdoms: San Guo Yan Yi. Translated by C.H. Brewitt-Taylor. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1925.
Ex F: Author’s First and Last Name, Title, trans. or ed. by Translator or Editor (Publication City: Publishing Company, Year), Page.
F: Luo Guan Zhong, Romance of the Three Kingdoms: San Guo Yan Yi, trans. C.H. Brewitt-Taylor (Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1925), 247-248.
Extra Information: When adding the Editor or Translator, use First then Last Name. For Bibliography write out Translated or Edited by. For Footnotes use the abbreviations.
Ex B: Authors Name. Year of publication. Book Title. Edition number followed by ed. City of publication: Company.
B: Worzella, Andy. 2006. Coming to America: A history of immigration and ethnicity in American life. 2nd ed. New York: Harper Perennial.
If you cite a book published in more than one edition, always indicate in your reference list which edition you consulted because editions may differ. “Revised editions”-include the number or description of the edition after the title. Abbreviate such wording as “second edition, revised and enlarged” as 2nd ed.; abbreviate “Revised Edition” as Rev. ed. Include the publication date only of the edition you are citing, not of any pervious editions. “Reprint Editions”- cite the reprint edition if you used it.
Ex B: Authors Name. Year of publication. Book Title. Edition number followed by ed. Volume number. City of publication: Company.
B: Pelikan, Jaroslav. 1989. Christian doctrine and modern culture and modern culture (since 1700). Vol. 5 of The Christian tradition: A history of the development of doctrine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Specific Volume: If the volume has a title different from the work as a whole list the title of the specific volume, followed by both the volume numbers and the general title. Abbreviate vol. and use Arabic numbers for volume numbers. If the volumes are not titled individually and you are citing only one, add the volume number to the reference list entry. In a parenthetical citation, put the volume umber immediately before the page number, separated by a colon and no intervening spaces. Put information about the individual editor or author of the volume after the individual volume title and before the volume number and general title in a reference list entry.
B: Myrdal, Gunnar. Population: A Problem for Democracy. 1940. Reprint. (Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith,1956) p. ?
Ex B: Authors Name. Year of publication. Book Title. City of publication: Company.
B: Markman, Charles W. 1991. Chicago before history: The prehistoric archaeology of a modern metropolitan area. Studies in Illinois Archaeology 7. Springfield: Illinois Historic Preservation Agency.
Ex B: Last, First M. or Organization. Title of Document. # Cong. (if applicable),
# session, Report #. Place: Publisher, Date.
B: U. S. Congress House. Committee on Defense. Subcommittee on the
Environment. Global Nuclear Technology. Reported by Xavier Wilkins
and Christian Tatsch. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., 1974. Committee Print 12.
Ex F: #. First M. Last or Organization, Title of Document, # Cong. (if applicable),
session, Report # (Place: Publisher, Date), Pages.
F: 29. U. S. Congress, House, Committee on the Judiciary, Sex Tourism Prohibition Improvement Act of 2002, 107thCong., 2d Session, Report no. 107-525 (Washington, D. C.: G.P.P., 2002), 14-15.
Same format for Bibliography and Foot Notes below unless otherwise stated.
Author, title of page in quotes, title or owner of this site, URL [access date].
10. Jeff Rybacki, “Neenah Creek Elementary School,” Wisconsin Dells School District, http://www.sdwd.k12.wi.us/neenahcreek.html [accessed March 8, 2008].
How to cite an electronic journal article
Journal articles that you access on line should include a full citation including author, title of the article/review, title and publication information of the journal, and web access date and url.
No named author
Name of the owner of the site, title in quotes, title or owner of the site, URL [access date].
10. Green Bay Packers, “News,” Green Bay Packers, http://www.packers.com/
news/ [accessed March 8, 2008].
Informal site with no title
Ex F: organization name, description of content, URL [access date].
F: 10. Camp Taconic Alumni, 1995 photo gallery, http://www.taconicalumni.org/ 1955.htm [accessed June 1, 2005].
Ex F: author of site, title in quotes, blog name, entry posted (place full month, date, year), URL [access date].
F: 10. Faiza Al-Arji, “Going among small worries, and big…,” A Family in Baghdad, entry posted February 14, 2008, http://afamilyinbaghdad.blogspot.com/ [accessed March 8, 2008].
Citing a comment posted on a blog
Ex F: Comment author’s name or pseud. in brackets if not complete or pseudonym, comment on (article title commenting on in quotes), blog name, comment posted (place full month, date, year), URL [accessed].
F: a.decker [pseudo.], comment on “Kuwaiti Range Hazards,” Miserable Donuts, comment posted February 16, 2008, https://www.blogger.com/comment.g? blogID=13196755&postID=5203123989481772122 [accessed March 8, 2008].
Sources in Performing Arts
Ex F: individual performer, instrument, title of work (if titles of shorter works, use quotes, all others italicize), by (composer), directed by (director), venue, location, date.
F: 10. Elinor Niemsito, harp, “Candlelight Carol,” by John Rutter, Viterbo Fine Arts Center, La Crosse, December 9, 2007.
Paintings, Sculptures, photographs, and other artworks
Name of artist, title (quote only photographs, all others italicize), date of its creation (use ca. if approximate), identify source, publication info if in published source, name of institution it is housed in, location.
10. Georgia O’Keefe, The Cliff Chimneys, 1938, Milwaukee Art Museum
11. Ansel Adams, “North Dome, Basket Dome, Mount Hoffman, Yosemite,” ca. 1935, Smithsonian American Art Museum,Washington, DC.
12. Georgia O’Keefe, The Cliff Chimneys, 1938, in Barbara Buhler Lynes, Lesley Poling-Kempes, and Fredrick W. Turner,Georgia O’Keefe and New Mexico: A Sense of Place [Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004], 25.
Ex B: Last Name, First Name, “Article Title,” Journal Title volume and issue number (Date of Publication): Page numbers.
B: Beattie, J.M. “The pattern of Crime in England, 1600-1800.” Past and Present, no.62 (1974): 47-95.
F: Ann Grodzins Gold. “Grains of Truth: Shifting Hierarchies of food and Grace in Three Rajasthani Tales.” History of Religions 38, no.2 (1998): 150-71.
Foot notes and end notes- Format notes in the same way as bibliographies except the author’s name is not reversed and it is first line indented instead of hanging indent.
Article Title- List complete articles titles and subtitles, separate the title from the subtitle with a colon. Words normally italicized in the title remain so. Do not put a period or comma after titles ending with a question mark or exclamation point.
Date of Publication- Use the date of publication used by the journal. Include the year and month or season if the journal does. Capitalize the season. If an article has not been published yet place the word forthcoming in the parentheses and omit the page numbers.
Special Issues and Supplements- If the special issue has a title and editor of its own, include both in the citations. Add the words special issue before the journal title and follow it with a period. Supplements are numbered, often, with an S as part of the page numbers. Use a comma between the volume number and supplement number.
Theses and Dissertations
Ex B: Author. “Title.” kind of thesis, academic institution, date.
B: Murphy, Priscilla Coit. “What a Book Can Do: Silent Spring and Media-Borne Public Debate.” PhD diss., University of North Carolina, 2000.
F: 1. Karen Leigh Culcasi, “Cartographic Representations of Kurdistan in the Print Media” (master’s thesis, Syracuse University, 2003), 15.
For online database, add name of database, URL and access date following institutional information.
Lectures and Papers presented at Meetings
Ex B: Author. “Title.” List of sponsorship, location, date of meeting.
B: Skocpol, Theda. “Voice and Inequality: The Transformation of American Civic Democracy.” Presidential address, annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA, August 28, 2003.
F: 2. John Troutman, “Indian Blues: American Indians and the Politics of Music, 1890-1935” (lecture, Newberry Library,Chicago, IL, February 2, 2005)
Interview and Personal Communications
Ex F: Interviewee, interviewer, place, date, location of any tapes or transcripts(if available).
F: 14. Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.
Explain if names were withheld in a note or preface. (“All interviews were confidential.”)
Ex B: Author, date, title or type of document, name of collection, name of depository.
B: Dinkel, Joseph. Description of Louis Agassiz written at the request of Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Agassiz Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA.
F: 5. George Creel to Colonel House, September 25, 1918, Edward M. House Papers, Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.
Ex B: Author, “Title of Article,” Title of Magazine, Date, Year.
B: Eric Wills. “Paradise Lost: McMansions multiply in an Arizona Town.” Preservation, May/June 2008, 20-21.
N: Wills, Eric, “Paradise Lost: McMansions multiply in an Arizona Town.” Preservation, May/June 2008, 20-21.
If citing a department or column that appears frequently, capitalize it headline style and do not enclose it in quotation marks. For a department without a named author, use the name of the magazine in place of the author in a bibliography entry.
Ex B: Author (last name, first name). “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper. (Date): pages.
B: Tyler Marshall, “200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated,” Los Angeles Times, (15 March 1985) sec. 1A, p.6.
F: 1. Author’s full name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper. (Date of Publication) section and page numbers.
Inserting Footnotes into a MS Word document
When you’re working on an academic paper, it is important to cite your references. Using MS Word, it can be very simple to use footnotes in your document to provide citation for sources. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts: the note reference mark and the corresponding note text.
A footnote is a note of text placed at the bottom of a page in a book or document. The note comments on and may cite areference for part of the main body of text. A footnote is normally flagged by a superscript number following that portion of the text the note is in reference to.
Follow these steps to insert footnotes into your document:
1. Place the cursor where the footnote mark should be inserted
2. On the Insert menu, select Reference
3. On the Reference submenu, click Footnote…
4. Make sure Footnote is selected in the Location section
5. Select Bottom of page, if it is not already selected
6. Click Insert
7. Type in citation
Consolidating footnotes within a paragraph
If you have multiple citations from the same source within one paragraph, you may consolidate these citations into one at the end of the paragraph. Simply combine all of the page numbers in one author/title/source citation.
How to cite multiple references from the same source
The first reference to any source always includes complete information. Subsequent references to that reference may be abbreviated to include the author’s last name and a page number. If you are citing more than one work by an author, then these subsequent references need to include an abbreviated title.
(This Style Guide was prepared by Amanda Arentz, Ashley VonRuden, J. P. Krause, Harley Oemig, Kevin Balk, Corrina Dedrich, Melissa Hoppe, Patrick Leigle, Emily Ness, Kelli Ryan, Ben Wandschneider and Kyler Westerfeldt as a collaborative project in HIS 200: Historiography and Historical Methods – spring semester, 2008.)